Cleveland was at one time the city with the second largest population of Hungarians in the world (after Budapest). In researching the history of the Cleveland Hungarian community, I found that the sources were seemingly limitless: there were dozens of churches and literally hundreds of organizations and businesses established during the past one hundred years since the first Hungarians settled in this city. And the number of noteworthy community leaders was again staggering. Moreover, there were two distinct areas of Hungarian settlement: the Buckeye Road community on the East Side and the Lorain Road community on the West Side. By far the most difficult task involved in writing the Cleveland section was determining the boundaries within which such a massive history could be compiled. This monograph was not intended to be a who's who of Hungarians in Cleveland, nor does it list all the organizations and businesses ever established. It does, however, outline, within a historical context, how and why Cleveland became such a large Hungarian center and the nature of the ethnocultural community which existed and still exists. This study is the first comprehensive history of this community in Cleveland—I hope it will serve to encourage further research into the many facets of the community's history.

       Many sources were used in researching and compiling this volume, in particular the Andrica Collection at Cleveland State University was of immeasurable assistance. I wish to express appreciation to Dr. John Grabowski for providing access to pertinent materials at the Western Reserve Historical Society. Acknowledgement is also due the following members of the community who lent primary resource materials and photographs: Mr. Andrew Dono, Dr. Stephen Eszterhas, Mrs. Helen Fedas, Mrs. Margaret Kovell, Mrs. Berta Ludescher, Fr. John Nyeste, Fr. Richard Orley and Mr. Jack Russell. Individuals with whom taped interviews were conducted are listed in the footnotes of the Cleveland section.

       I wish to thank Professor Robert F. Harney, academic director of the Multicultural History Society of Ontario, for his encouragement and the opportunities offered to me in furthering my studies of immigrant history. The experience gained by working for the Society has helped me considerably in the completion of this volume.

       Finally, my heartfelt thanks goes to Dr. Karl Bonutti, editor of the series, for his support. I am also indebted to several academic advisors and colleagues at the Society who read and criticized sections of the monograph. Deserving special mention for his patience and understanding is my husband, A. Andrew Zubrits, the most ardent critic and supporter of my work.



Susan M. Papp