The "Kossuth Craze" which was the term coined to describe his overwhelming popularity, was evident everywhere he traveled. The soft hat worn by Louis Kossuth became the latest fashion. Four towns, one county and six streets were named after the exiled Hungarian governor (all are still in use today). A child born in Cleveland at the time of Kossuth's visit was named E.K. Willcox, the E.K. standing for Éljen Kossuth (Long Live Kossuth). Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote in his diary on December 19, 1851:


Everyday brings a new speech of Kossuth-stirring and eloquent. All New York is in a blaze with his words-quite mad. Wonderful power of oratory and the pleading of sincere heart in the cause of human rights! But why need people go clean daft?17


       Louis Kossuth sailed back to England on July 14, 1852. In the United States, he gained nationwide support for the Hungarian cause and impressed upon the minds of Americans the need for solidarity among the freedom-loving nations of the world. The ideas espoused by Kossuth were far in advance of his time. Through his exceptional skills as a writer and orator, he demonstrated what one man could achieve in the interests of his homeland; "...to shake the solid mind of a whole nation, to agitate the mighty heart of a vast continent, and even to effect and modify the public opinion and the public affairs of the world."18

B. The Emigrés

       The Hungarians who came to the United States in the 1850s were part of what historians refer to as the "Kossuth Emigration." The majority had little choice but to emigrate, because of their involvement in the Hungarian War of Independence. Generally, the emigres were well-educated and members of the middle and upper classes of Hungary. Many were politicians, educators,





       diplomats and high-ranking army officers who served meritoriously in the War of 1848.

       They proved to be valuable citizens of the United States. Most accepted their adopted homeland as permanent until such time when Hungary would be free of Austrian rule. During the Civil War, at a time when the North was in desperate need of trained military officers, 800 Hungarian emigrés (of the 4,000 who were living in the United States) volunteered their expertise to fight for the Union cause.

       László Újházy was among the first to arrive with his family and the first Hungarian of the emigrés to become a naturalized citizen of the United States. Receptions were held in his honor in New York, Washington and Philadelphia. Újházy secured welcome for many emigrés who followed through his sincerity and goodwill. László Újházy founded the first Hungarian settlement in the United States at New Buda, Iowa.

       The emigrés gained recognition for their struggle during the War of Independence and for the most part, they found favorable positions and excelled in American society. Nicholas Fejérvári became a successful real estate broker in Davenport, Iowa. He bequeathed the Fejérvári Home for the Aged and a large garden to the city of Davenport, which was later named Fejérvári Park in his honor. Michael Heilprin, a former writer in Hungary, became a writer and editor for Appleton's New American Encyclopedia. Later, he obtained a position as a columnist for the Nation in Washington. Heilprin also took active part in the "New Yorki Magyar Egylet" (The New York Hungarian Association). Several Hungarian emigrés became professors at American universities. On numerous occasions, Hungarian officers were appointed United States consuls to foreign countries, in recognition of





their meritorious service during the Civil War. Hungarian emigrés served as American consuls to Japan and China, Argentina and Paraguay, British Guinea, Hungary, Rumania, Italy and Mexico.

       The Hungarian emigrés settled in New York City (with the largest Hungarian population), New Orleans (Louisiana), St. Louis (Missouri), and a small group in Davenport (Iowa). The first Hungarian society, The Central Hungarian Society, was formed in New York City in September 1849. Its purpose was to aid Hungary by securing goodwill in America. In 1850 a Hungarian club was founded in Boston by George L. Stearns. The first Hungarian restaurant named "To the Three Hungarians" was opened in New York by Mátyás Nyújtó in 1851. Charles Kornis published the first Hungarian newspaper, Számuzottek Lapja (Journal of Hungarian Exiles) in 1853. In 1865 the first significant Hungarian immigrant institution, "New Yorki Magyar Egylet" (The New York Hungarian Association) was established.


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       László Újházy hoped to establish a Hungarian settlement in the United States. Along with three other emigrés, Újházy bought settlers rights' in the new State of Iowa-they named the settlement in Decatur County "New Buda." Újházy was named postmaster of the settlement and eventually more Hungarians followed.

       These Hungarian emigrés were of the opinion that their strength depended on unity of thought and action. If any change occurred in the political situation in Hungary, a group of Hungarians living together could act quickly. Also, they wished to preserve the social and domestic aspects of life in Hungary. The community became much like a Hungarian village where Hungarian traditions and customs were maintained.





The settlement consisted of no more than one hundred immigrants at any time. These scholars, statesmen, soldiers and gentlemen farmers were not accustomed to the rugged life prairie farming afforded. One immigrant, Ferenc Varga, recounts his first meeting with László Újházy in New Buda:


How could I describe that meeting? The elderly Újházy, in a red flannel shirt and an old hat was plastering the chimney. I was dumbfounded. I saw before me his castle near Buda and thought of the many times I had heard him speak at the Sáros County Hall. Could it be possible that in the space of one year this would be the fate of the well-renowned Patriot, the Lord Lieutenant of the County of Sáros?19


       The success of New Buda was short-lived. The rugged life and harsh climate eventually discouraged many of the Hungarian settlers. László Újházy left New Buda grief-stricken when his wife died—he journeyed to Texas. Years later, President Lincoln appointed him United States consul to Italy.

       An additional cause of the eventual disintegration of the Hungarian settlement was the Civil War. Many of the emigrés were soldiers by profession, they enlisted and served in large numbers in the Union Army. New Buda later became the site of Davis City, Iowa.


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       Joseph Pulitzer, the founder of the famous Pulitzer Prizes, was born in Makó, Hungary on April 10, 1847. He was the son of a prosperous grain merchant. When his father died, his mother remarried and young Joseph's life was made miserable by his new stepfather. At the age of seventeen, Joseph left Hungary and attempted to join the armies of Austria, France and Britain, but was rejected because of his poor eyesight and weak physical stature. In Hamburg, Germany an agent for the Union Army recruited Joseph and placed him on the first ship bound for the United States. Arriving in





New York, Joseph enlisted in the First New York Cavalry Regiment. He served under General P.H. Sheridan and General George Armstrong Custer and was mustered out of service in July of 1865, at the age of eighteen. In that same year he headed west for St. Louis, where he arrived penniless.

       In St. Louis he became a reporter for a German-language newspaper, Westliche-Post. In a short while he obtained his American citizenship. In December of 1869, at the age of twenty-two, Joseph was elected to the lower house of the Missouri State Legislature. Here he led a successful campaign to reform the corrupt county government of St. Louis.

       Pulitzer then became a newspaper proprietor. He bought the run down Post for its Associated Press franchise, merged it with the Dispatch as the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, creating one of the strongest independent newspapers in the country. By 1880 Pulitzer became its sole owner. Leaving the St. Louis Post-Dispatch in charge of a competent manager, he moved his family to New York where he bought The World. After only two years The World surpassed the circulations of the mighty Times, Tribune, Herald and Sun. By 1886 the annual earnings of The World were more than $500,000. William R. Hearst's purchase of the New York Journal brought The World a powerful competitor, but Pulitzer met the challenge by reducing the price of his newspaper from three cents to two. In 1887 he created an evening edition, The New York Evening World. To The World, as to the Post-Dispatch, Pulitzer gave a tone of aggressive editorial independence. His editorials were sympathetic to labor and supported the cause of striking steel workers in Homestead, Pennsylvania in 1892.

       During his lifetime, Pulitzer gave liberally. In 1903 he founded the School of Journalism at Columbia University, which opened in 1912. More