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particularly noteworthy organizer and official of the association was Gábor Bodnár, who has served as executive president of the association for nearly two decades. As a young man, Bodnár was already a member of the Grand Council of the association in Hungary. Since 1945 Bodnár has worked tirelessly in building the Hungarian scouting movement through initiating and coordinating organizational efforts worldwide.

C. The Refugees of the Hungarian Revolution

       Following the Hungarian Revolution in 1956, 35,705 Hungarian refugees arrived in the United States with the help of various organizations and the American Hungarian Federation.73 These immigrants were generally referred to as "freedom fighters" in the press and by the general public, as they fought against Russian domination at the height of the Cold War. Overall, Americans sympathized with the cause of these refugees and all forms of assistance were generated for their resettlement. Grand scale relief programs were mobilized, the United States made available $20 million in food and medical supplies to help alleviate the suffering in Hungary. At Madison Square Garden 10,000 people gathered to raise one million dollars for Hungarian relief. Refugees admitted to the United States were flown to Camp Kilmer, New Jersey where 31,869 Hungarians were aided in resettlement.

       The Hungarian-American communities provided generously for their fellow countrymen in need, and generally, the refugees found numerous opportunities open to them. Some 3,000 refugee college students enrolled in American universities and continued their education with the help of various scholarship programs. They founded the Association of Hungarian Students in North America. The National Academy of Sciences placed 1,081 Hungarian scientists.

 


 

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Hungarian refugee youngster on her first day in America School

 


 

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       These refugees were markedly different from any previous wave of Hungarian immigrants. First of all, they were the youngest group; many were single. The majority had some kind of technical training and their skills were readily employed by American industry. Psychologically, immigration made lasting impressions on these refugees. For eleven years they experienced life under economic depravity and political terror. As a direct consequence, their interests in America were more materialistic and self-centered; cultural or group attachments were much weaker when compared to those of previous waves of immigrants. They adjusted with greater ease, learned English in a short while, with many of them marrying English-speaking mates. Their contributions to their adopted homeland were numerous.

       Some new organizations were founded by the 1956 refugees. The largest, the World Federation of Hungarian Freedom Fighters, was founded in 1957 to propagate the ideals of the revolution in the Western world. Membership was reported at 10,000 in the 1970s. Representatives meet at world congresses held regularly every two or three years. Monuments commemorating the revolution were erected in three cities: Toronto (Canada), Los Angeles (California) and South Norwalk (Connecticut). The erection of these monuments was initiated and carried to fruition largely by members of the federation.

 


 

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NOTES

       1. David B. Quinn and Neil Cheshire, The Newfoundland of Stephen Parmenius, The Life and Writings of a Hungarian Poet, Drowned on a Voyage from Newfoundland, 1583 (Toronto: (University of Toronto Press). , 1972), pp. 59-60.

       2. Eugene Pivány, Hungarian-American Historical Connections from Pre-Columbian Times to the End of the American Civil War (Budapest: (Royal Hungarian University Press). , 1927), p. 21.

       3. Ibid.p.21

       4. Coloman Révész, Colonel Commandant Michael de Kováts, Drillmaster of Washington Cavalry (Pittsburg: (Verhovay Fraternal Insurance Associations). , 1954), p. 12.

       5. Géza Kende, Magyarok Amerikában (Cleveland: (Szabadság). , 1927), p. 33.

       6. Havasne Bede Piroska es Somogyi Sandor, eds., Magyar Utazók, Földrajzi Felfedezok (Budapest: (Tankönyvkiadó). , 1973), p. 148.

       7. Theodore Schoenman and Helen Benedek Schoenman, eds., Letters from North America (Detroit: (Wayne State University Press). , 1975), p. 18.

       8. Theodore Schoenman and Helen Benedek Schoenman, eds., Travels in Southern California (Detroit: (Wayne State University Press). , 1976), p. 43.

       9. Schoenman, Letters from North America, pp. 20-21.

       10. Schoenman, Travels in Southern California, p. 37.

       11. Ibid. , p. 15.

       12. Eugene Pivány, op. cit. , p. 45.

       13. Phineas C. Headley, The Life of Louis Kossuth (Auburn, England: (Derby & Miller). , 1852), p. 258.

       14. Robert Carter, Kossuth in New England (Boston: (J.P. Jewett & Co.). , 1852), p. 223.

 


 

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       15. John Komlos, Louis Kossuth in America, 1851-1852 (Buffalo: (East European Institute). , 1973), p. 128.

       16. The New York Daily Tribune, 11 December 1851.

       17. Samuel Longfellow, ed., The Life of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow with Extracts from his Journals and Correspondence, vol. II (Boston: (Tichnor and Company). , 1886), p. 271.

       18. Robert C. Winthrop in an address to Harvard College Alumni as reprinted by John H. Komlos, op. cit. , p. 167.

       19. "Újházi László," Szabadság, 21 December 1911, Part II, pp. 8-9.

       20. Joseph Szeplaki, The Hungarians in America 1583-1974: A Chronology & Fact Book (Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: (Oceana Publications). , 1975), p. 13.

       21. Edmund Vasváry, Lincoln's Hungarian Heroes (Washington, D.C.: (The Hungarian Reformed Federation of America). , 1939).

       22. Ibid. , p. 86.

       23. Ibid. , p. 59.

       24. Leslie Konnyu, Hungarians in the U.S.A.: An Immigration Study (St. Louis: (The American Hungarian Review). , 1967), p. 22.

       25. John Eppstein, Hungary (Cambridge: (The University Press). , 1945), p. 32.

       26. Emil Lengyel, Americans from Hungary (Philadelphia & New York: (J.B. Lippincott Co.). , 1948), p. 128.

       27. Ibid. , p. 127.

       28. Samuel Joseph, Jewish Immigration to the United States from 1881 to 1910, vol. 59, Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Law ( (Columbia University Press). , 1914), p. 190.

       29. Leonard Dinnerstein and David M. Reimers, Ethnic Americans: A History of Immigration and Assimilation (New York: (Dodd, Mead & Co.). , 1975), p. 45.

 


 

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       30. "Nagy Sztrájkok és Szerencsétlenségek," Szabadság, 21 December 1911, Part III, p. 14.

       31. Emil Lengyel, op. cit. , p. 129.

       32. "Nagy Sztrájkok és Szerencsétlenségek." op. cit.

       33. Miklos Szantho, Magyarok a Nagyvilágban (Budapest: (Kossuth Könyvkiadó). , 1970), p. 66.

       34. Richard Krickus, Pursuing the American Dream (Garden City, N.Y.: (Anchor Press/Doubleday). , 1976), p. 111.

       35. "Nagy Sztrájkok és Szerencsétlenségek," op. cit.

       36. "Milleniumi Magyar Bányász Betegsegélyzo Egylet," Szabadság, 21 December 1911, Part V, p. 5.

       37. Victor Greene, The Slavic Community on Strike (Notre Dame: (Notre Dame University Press). , 1972), p. 193.

       38. Richard Krickus, op. cit. , p. 67.

       39. "Nagy Sztrájkok...," op. cit.

       40. Leonard M. Dinnerstein and David M. Reimers, op. cit. , p. 45.

       41. Tivadar Ács, "A Powderly Ugy," Szabadság, 5 October 1948.

       42. "Nagy Sztrájkok...," op. cit.

       43. "Az Amerikai Magyar Egyházak Torténete," Szabadság, 21 December 1911, Part IV, pp. 2-6.

       44. Ibid.

       45. Joshua Fishman, Hungarian Language Maintenance in the United States (Bloomington: (Indiana University). , 1966), p. 11.

       46. David A. Souders, The Magyars in America (New York: (George H. Doran Co.). , 1922), (reprint edition, San Francisco: R. and E. Research Associates, 1969), pp. 87-88.

 


 

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       47. Ibid. , p. 79.

       48. "Az Amerikai Magyar Egyházak Története," op. cit.

       49. David A. Souders, op. cit. , p. 79.

       50. Joshua Fishman, op. cit. , p. 26.

       51. Ibid. , p. 11.

       52. According to Géza Hoffmann's data, as cited by Joseph Széplaki, op. cit. , p. 25.

       53. Emil Lengyel, op. cit. , p. 161.

       54. 1970 Bethlen Naptar (Ligonier, Pa.: (Bethlen Home). , 1970), p. 41.

       55. "Az Amerikai Magyar Sajtó," Szabadság, 21 December 1911, Part III, p. 12.

       56. Emil Lengyel, op. cit. , p. 203.

       57. Mark I. Major, American Hungarian Relations 1918-1944 (Astor, Fla.: (Danubian Press). , 1974), p. 133.

       58. Joshua Fishman, op. cit. , p. 9.

       59. Ibid. , p. 10.

       60. Ibid. , p. 9.

       61. Francis S. Wagner, Hungarian Contributions to World Civilization (Center Square, Pa.: (Alpha Publications). , 1977), p. 162.

       62. Ibid. , p. 162.

       63. Ibid. , p. 194.

       64. Joseph Szeplaki, op. cit. , p. 30.

       65. Szabadság, 28 January 1942.

 


 

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       66. John Korosfoy, Hungarians in America (Cleveland: (Szabadság). , 1941), p. 17.

       67. "A Nacizmust és a Kommonizmust Egyformán Elítéli as A.M. Sz.," Amerikai Magyarság, February 1950.

       68. "Az American Hungarian Relief, Inc. Eddigi Munkája," Golden Jubilee Album (New York: (American Hungarian People's Voice). , 1950), p. 96.

       69. Joseph Széplaki, op. cit., p. 131.

       70. Joshua Fishman, op. cit. , p. 36.

       71. Ibid. , pp. 18-19.

       72. Gábor Bodnár, "A Kulföldi Magyar Oktatás 1974-ben" (Garfield, N.J.: (Hungarian Scouts Association). , 1974).

       73. Alexander S. Weinstock, Acculturation and Occupation: A Study of the 1956 Hungarian Refugees in the United States(The Hague: (Research Group for European Migration Problems). , 1969), pp. 41-2.

 


 

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Location Of Cleveland's Hungarian Neighborhood

 

 


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