TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

Page

 

PREFACE

iii

 

INTRODUCTION by Andrew M. Greeley

1

 

PART ONE: THE IRISH IN CLEVELAND: ONE PERSPECTIVE

 
 

by William F. Hickey

 
1.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF IRELAND

5

 

The celts

5

 

Saint Patrick

11

 

Irish Scholarship and Missionary Work

14

 

The Norman Invasion

16

 

Lessening English Influence

18

 

The Effects of the Reformation in Ireland

22

 

Oliver Cromwell

25

 

The Force of Religion

29

2.

THE PERIOD OF EMIGRATION

31

 

The First Irish Immigrants

32

 

Mass Migration

36

 

Moving West: The Erie Canal

43

 

Conditions for Canal Workers

45

 

The Ohio Canal

50

3.

SETTLING IN CLEVELAND

52

 

What is Meant by "Irish

52

 

The First Irish in Cleveland

54

 

Whiskey Island

56

 

Life on Whiskey Island

63

 

New Work on the Canal Boats

65

 

Moving Out from Whiskey Island: the 1830ís

67

 

Expansion Continued: Irishtown

70

 

Working on the Docks: The Iron Ore Terriers

72

 

Upward Mobility: The 1850's

81

 

Shantytown Life in the Late 1800' s

85

 

Irish Saloons

88

 

Politics

93

 

Crime

96

 

Service Occupations and Some Community Problems

100

 

Continued Expansion: Lace Curtain and Shanty Irish

102

 

Irish Wakes

105

 

Cleveland Irish During the Civil War

108

 

Organizations to Free Ireland: Trouble with the Church

109

 

Irishtown: 1870's and 1880's

113

 

Cleveland Irish in Baseball

115

 

Other Advances

117

 

Politics: The End of the 19th Century

120

 

Contributions of the Clergy

124

 

A final Comment

126

 

PART TWO: THE IRISH IN CLEVELAND: ONE PERSPECTIVE

 
        

       by Nelson J. Callahan

127

4.

CATHOLICISM AND THE IRISH

130

 

The Old World Heritage

130

 

Basic Problems of the Irish in America

132

 

Cleveland Prior to Irish Immigration

134

 

The Great Famine and the Subsequent Emigration

138

 

Arriving in Cleveland

142

 

Early Irish Settlements in Cleveland

147

 

Development of the Catholic Diocese of Cleveland

148

 

Saint Patrick Parish

155

 

Saint Malachi Parish

156

 

Summary of Differences Between West Side and East

 

 

       Side Parishes

158

 

East and West Side Differences in the Twenty Century

166

5.

THE CLEVELAND IRISH AND THEIR PLACE OF ORIGIN

176

6.

THE EARLY IRISH NEIGHBORHOODS

180

7.

IRISH IN POLITICS AND PROFESSIONS

190

 

The Influence of Archbishop John Ireland

190

 

Judge Martin Foran

195

8.

THE IRISH AND EDUCATION

199

 

The Catholic School System

199

 

Higher Education

202

9.

LOST OPPORTUNITIES OF THE IRISH

206

 

John F. Kennedy

214

10.

THE ROLE OF CLEVELAND BISHOPS IN SHAPING THE ETHNICITY OF

 

 

       CLEVELAND'S IRISH

219

 

Bishop Ignatius Horstniann

219

 

Bishop John Farrelly

223

 

Bishop Joseph Schrembs

226

 

Bishop Edward Hoban

231

11.

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CLEVELAND IRISH AND IRISH WHO CAME

 

 

        TO CLEVELAND FROM OTHER AMERICAN CITIES

237

12.

IRISH ORGANIZATIONS IN CLEVELAND

241

 

APPENDIX A

246

 

APPENDIX B

252

 

SOURCES

254

 


 

TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS

 

 

Ireland and the European Countries in 1970

6

 

Ireland

7

 

Principal Celtic pop u lation movement

9

 

St. Patrick's Bell and Shrine

12

 

Early Ireland

15

 

Oratory at Gallarus

19

 

Rock of Cashel

23

 

Oliver Cromwell & The Massacre of Drogheda

26

 

Emigrant sailing

37

 

Famine in Ireland

39

 

St. Patrick's Day Parade

42

 

Ohio Canal Freight Boat & Canal Scene

48

 

The Cuyahoga

51

 

Plan of Cleveland 1868 & Birdeye's View of Cleveland

55

 

Grain boat upset near Lake Shore Bridge & River Boats on

 

 

        Whiskey Island

59

 

Map: Streets on Whiskey Island

61

 

The Flats from Columbus Hill

66

 

Irishtown Bend & Old Main Avenue Lighthouse

71

 

Cuyahoga River scene & Cuyahoga Pier

73

 

Early machinery for loading and unloading ore

76

 

Ore Docks on the River

79

 

Old Irish Settlement & Superior Street Railway Co.

95

 

Quiet reverence

129

 

Lonely independence & Spotless interior

139

 

St. Mary's of the Flats & Bishop Amadeus Rappe

150

 

St. Colman's Church & Holy Rosary Church

154

 

Early Cleveland Priests & St. Malachi's Catholic parish

157

 

The Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist & Church of the

 

 

        Immaculate Conception and school

160

 

Interior of St. Bridget's Church & Interior of the

 

 

        Church of the Holy Name

163

 

St. Malachi's Church & St. Patrick's Church

169

 

St. Ignatius College & St. Joseph's Church

174

 

Aerial view of Cuyahoga River

183

 

St. Colman's Church & St. Ann's Church

192

 

Most Rev. John P. Farrelly

224

 

Most Rev. Bishop Edward F. Hoban

232


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Last updated August 16, 2001